AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL FICTION

IMAGINATION

GUEST COLUMN

Mar 172015
 

DSCF1110
DSCF1446
168945_1853369096043_1982853_n

When I am at the summer house I have a lot of free time. I read and look around. Whatever I read gets projected onto whatever I see. Here are two metaphorical systems I found fitting to my Dacha story: the semiosphere of Juri Lotman illustrating the microcosmos, and the time-duration cone of Henri Bergson illustrating time.

Juri Lotman (1922–1993) is a Russian/Estonian literary and cultural historian, a founder of the Tartu-Moscow Semiotic School. Unfortunately, his sign systems studies are not as well-known as Umberto Eco’s. Juri Lotman seems to have been a very kind man, and he is my imaginary best friend at the moment. Please remember him; he is a hero.

The semiosphere , a bubble of signs or meanings, is a universe or microcosmos, a text or a city, one’s imagination or my head. Just like my summer house – an actual private place, separated from the rest of the world by a fence and wishful thinking, stuffed with a dense collection of personal metaphors. By returning there every year I keep seeing things that are so familiar in a new light. It is coloured by too much oxygen and the emotions that come with being my parents’ child again. Every object or gesture can become a metaphor with multiple meanings if you give it enough time – as in Bergson’s ‘attention to life’, the point of actual time duration that finds its place at the apex of a funnel filled with memories and accumulated experiences.

fuji-at-torigoe   Jurij Lotman
13771621img081

Usually I stay at the summer house for one or two months. While I am there, my perception of time changes, and some of my priorities change with it. This happens gradually. It takes me about two weeks to get ‘synchronized’ with the surroundings and my parents’ pace. A day feels endless; every day looks like the day before. Somehow, because I don’t do much, this period becomes productive. A bored brain seems to create its own entertainment by connecting the dots, by finding unexpected associations and creating new meanings. My head is empty enough to find a story on a kitchen table or under a berry bush. Or to find justification for my passivity, so I can just lie under the apple tree with a book and wait for my mother to bring me food.

The dacha has a long history as the summer estate of the Russian gentry; an ancestor’s home with serfs and hounds, a place to lose at the gambling table; with a little teahouse in the garden – a place for secret meetings with a naive but wise girl in a white dress (so Turgenev). There, a Russian novel. The dacha was also a dream and a must-have for Soviet citizens who spent their summers butts up, weeding and digging potatoes to hoard them up for winter. There are several famous dachas near Pskov (where I come from) – Nabokov’s, Rimsky-Korsakov’s, Musorgsky’s, Pushkin’s, and mine.

img226 - kopieDSCF2705
Alexander Pushkin spent two years in exile at his family estate Mikhailovskoye; Joseph Brodsky was sentenced to 18 month of labour in the village of Norenskaya – that, with a bit of a stretch, could also be called a dachaesque experience. Those periods of exile were later considered very important in the development of the poets’ oeuvres. Both wrote a lot, there were visible changes in their styles and ‘life positions’, both frantically asked friends to sent more and more books. Brodsky was 24, Pushkin 25; Pushkin wrote around 100 works, Brodsky around 80. Pushkin’s place was much more comfortable than Brodsky’s of course, if you can possibly compare a family estate to a hut in a kolkhoz. Pushkin had his nanny tell him fairytales, made a baby with a maid, and visited his neighbours – five women he fell in love with, one after the other. What did Brodsky have? Some knitted carpets, hopefully.  According to his friend and biographer Lev Loseff, Brodsky looked back at this period as one of the best of his life. Vyazemsky, a friend of Pushkin, wrote that it was a miracle that Pushkin didn’t become an alcoholic – ‘ne spilsja’. The same goes for Brodsky, I guess. Especially if you consider the drinking habits in the deep Russian province. I mentioned already the deep admiration Lotman had for Pushkin’s ‘zhiznestroitel’stvo’ – life-building, the inner logic of his life path that can be discerned in all his actions. His biography is not a sum of events shaped by external factors, but by his internal, psychological integrity.

tapijtjes-klein

(from Unreal Estate #1 2014)

 

Mar 192014
 

16img073
Pierre Bonnard

In addition to my fear of the dark, my fascination with darkness was also triggered by paintings of Pierre Bonnard, the painter of Mediterranean light and a Japonist is his early years. What I liked about the paintings was the sensation of things, objects slowly appearing and taking form. It has the same effect one can experience waking up in the morning and trying to focus. Something similar, but slower, happens when your eyes get used to the dark, and things begin to appear and take their approximate, doubting shape.
In Japan, the light/dark aesthetics are different from those in the West. You see it in household objects, architecture, colours and lighting. Junichiro Tanizaki (a Dostoyevsky fan) wrote an essay on this subject in 1933, In praise of shadows. (note to add [?]: shadow as a part of personal space, a person’s shadow in Japanese myths). Tanizaki writes about the cruel flattening effect of electric light and the typically Japanese preference for (half-)darkness. Indirect light and gradations of shadow give the object (or a person) a chance to postpone its presence; the process of looking is slowed down, attention is increased. The lack of light works suggestively; it changes the feeling of depth and gives an object a different kind of gravity, an inner glow (if I may call it that).

18-6259
Japanese folding screen

It is interesting to note that Tanizaki believes that the preference for (half-)darkness is built in historically and is a part of national character: not to try to improve everything unsatisfactory like western people do, but to accept the deficiency of light and find it beautiful by acceptance. To give more attention to subtle changes in the shadows that appear from clouds passing the moon, tree leaves moving, the flickering of a candle – it is never completely dark; the darkness is visible, flickering, shimmering. Decoration is functional – every gold speck on a folding screen or a rice bowl catches and reflects light. At the Noh play I went to the musicians were sitting on a rotating plateau on the side of the stage; the wall behind them was silver on one side and gold on the other – the moon and the sun; the subtle light change influenced the atmosphere of the scene.

Afbeelding1 Afbeelding2Afbeelding3
Noh masks

Japanese women used to blacken their teeth traditionally (ohaguro) – black gleaming teeth were considered beautiful because it made the skin look whiter, and it was good for the teeth as well (iron oxide). Apparently a similar custom shortly existed in Russia in the 16th century – Muscovite ladies used a mercurial black substance to paint their teeth.

vlcsnap-350289
Takeshi Kitano, film still

Tanizaki imagines how it might have been for a man in the old times to see a woman – always in semi-darkness behind a folding screen, the suggestiveness of her shadow through washi paper, blackened teeth, the dark hollows of her sleeves and the neck of a kimono – the darkness swallowing the woman or oozing out of her.
He is just as lyrical about pearl-like rice glimmering in a black varnished bowl, and about the deep colour of soy sauce. Tanizaki wanted to eat his meal only by candlelight.
There is another poetic passage about the contemplative atmosphere of a Japanese toilet, but I will skip that part (although in my summer house there is a similar ‘room with a view’ surrounded by the sound of crickets).

17Inception_Leo1
‘Inception’ film still, Christopher Nolan

I saw the wall paintings of Nijo Castle in Kyoto on a rainy day. It was a revelation to see those panels (used as an inspiration for the film Inception) in natural light and in their original habitat, not in a museum. It was as if I had only seen animals in a zoo before, and thought that this was where they lived. I understand, of course, why natural light can be a museum’s enemy and that most of contemporary art is meant for white neutral spaces and not for candle-lit churches or taverns. Talking about an animal-friendly zoo:  in 2006 the record number of visitors attending an art exhibition in Tokyo was broken during the show of Japanese masterpieces from the Price collection. Joe Price attributed this explosion of visitors to his experiment with the lighting. The lights kept changing every 3 minutes to imitate day- or moonlight – to show ‘how art changes if the light changes’. This exhibition also served as a rediscovery of Itō Jakuchū, the star of the Price collection – a masterly versatile, eccentric and strangely enough forgotten painter of the Edo period. Definitely a man to google if you don’t know him yet. See VIDEO.

Tokyo through the clouds

 Posted by on 02/21/2013  Clouds, Texts  Tags:, , , , ,
Feb 212013
 

6-P1060785

My wish to go to Japan comes from my interest in Japanese folding screens. Also, I am a fan of Yasujirō Ozu. In the subjective perspective of the ‘tatami shot’, slow storytelling with the key scenes often left out, the almost identical story about relations between family members recurring in every film, I notice connections with my own work.

I want to see how fluctuating perspective and fragmentary storytelling is used in folding screens; how the flat image functions in space as a three-dimensional object. The change from the medieval to monocular perspective (thanks to Brunelleschi) didn’t happen in Japanese art. Folding screens, with their framed panels, work rather like a comic strip – all action happens simultaneously; it is one picture with several parallel stories. On the screen ‘View of Edo’ (Edo-Tokyo Museum) one sees the city from above, through the clouds. The clouds help to minimize overcrowding of the images and give them a certain rhythm, so it looks like a collection of separate scenes with gaps to fill to one’s fancy. I immediately associate this with the way I hang up my photo’s  and get a kick from such a reference. The two sorts of perspective – linear and multiple point – can be seen as symbols for tunnel vision versus rhizomatic thinking or, for photography fanatics, as concentration versus distracted, noncommittal multitasking. I am an opportunist, but every medium has its borders, so I use both.

Before my trip I started on an essay about shifts of perception in the dark. The works of Pierre Bonnard, my hero, a painter of Mediterranean light and a Japonist in his early years, made me think about the sensation of things appearing slowly. Helped by a well-timed tip – to read Jun’ichirō Tanizaki’s In praise of shadows – I will now add a Japanese chapter to my essay. Tanizaki writes about the cruel flattening effect of electric light and about the typically Japanese preference for (half)darkness. Indirect light and gradations of shadow give the object a chance to postpone its presence; it slows down the process of looking. The lack of light works suggestively; it changes the feeling of depth and gives an object an inner glow (if I may call it that).

I saw the wall paintings of Nijo Castle in Kyoto on a rainy day. It was a revelation to see those panels (used as an inspiration for the film Inception) in natural light and in their original habitat, not in a museum. It was as if I had only seen animals in a zoo before, and thought that this was where they lived. I understand, of course, why natural light can be a museum’s enemy and that most of contemporary art is meant for white neutral spaces and not for candle-lit churches or taverns. Talking about an animal-friendly zoo:  in 2006 the record number of visitors attending an art exhibition in Tokyo was broken during the show of Japanese masterpieces from the Price collection. Joe Price attributed this explosion of visitors to his experiment with the lighting. The lights kept changing every 3 minutes to imitate day- or moonlight – to show ‘how art changes if the light changes’. This exhibition also served as a rediscovery of Itō Jakuchū, the star of the Price collection – a masterly versatile, eccentric and strangely enough forgotten painter of the Edo period. Definitely a man to google if you don’t know him yet.

Japan, unexpectedly, made me think of Russia, even the Soviet Union. I don’t know who should have the Kuril Islands, but we share the ocean, an addiction to dried fish, and the late abolishment of feudalism (Russia 1861, Japan 1868), normally seen as a medieval phenomenon. Japanese toilets we have in my hometown (not the warmed up ones attached to a keyboard); traditional Japanese lacquer has a Russian adaptation, ikra (caviar) is called ikora, wearing fur is obligatory, and the muffled atmosphere of the Tokyo library makes me nostalgic. But also: social pressure, uniformity, men/women relations, the culture of gift-giving, superstitions, double moral standards, and above all the firm belief of being a unique nation that can never be fully understood by a foreigner – the myths of the Russian soul and the mysterious Orient.

Finding similarities gives me something to hold on to and only accentuates the specific character of the country. The kind of landscape I knew from folding screens, and always took for fiction, turned out to actually exist. I came across it in both a tightly cultivated garden and in the wild. It is not the first time I notice that a myth can be true to life, or that paintings can strongly influence one’s perception. I saw a strange fat cat with cotton pad fur from the exhibition (the Japanese collection of the Boston Museum) – he walked past me in the park just as I came out; the mini versions of water dragons were sold at the fish market; my little house in the snow looked like the set of a Kabuki play. I knew about the Japonism hype after the World Expositions in Paris and London at the end of 19th century, and about the influence it had on European design and painting. Now that I am here, I begin to understand what it might have meant for the development of modernism. It is a very nice feeling to recognize the facts from European art history in shrine bushes, castle walls and kimono fabrics.

1-P1050637

2 april 2012
Tokyo

(a column for BK-Informatie Tokyo through the clouds/Tokyo door de wolken about my residency at AIT Arts Initiative Tokyo, 2012)

Feb 202013
 

During my recent stay in Japan, I figured out that I could use the clouds in Japanese folding screens as a metaphor for suggestive space that gets the imagination going – the clouds cover big parts of the depicted action. Only the use of the viewer’s imagination makes the contact between the picture and the viewer direct and personal.

How much space does association need? How does the imagination work when the direction is not clearly specified, when the given information is absurd or chaotic, or simply too much – when you don’t know how to begin to understand. How can one find a balance between subjective associations that are perhaps too personal, and common metaphors that tend to be clichés?

Launching a chain reaction of associations is one of the main tricks of poetry. I found some descriptions of this process; here they are in my free translation.

Haiku’s cannot be read and understood without knowledge of the historical context, says one little book.

The long associative rows start to unfold when things are named and placed next to each other. Each of the carefully chosen parts refers to a number of set associations (mood and weather, always ending with transience. There is a history of associative implications; a well-educated reader with experience does it almost automatically. Without the traditional reader there is no context. A translated haiku is only the peak of an iceberg.

Henri Bergson made a drawing of a cone to illustrate his time duration theory. This cone, a funnel of accumulated memories and experiences, slides over the plane of the present. The point of the cone that touches the plane is where the actual time duration takes place, what he called ‘attention to life’.
If a poem is an iceberg, then obvious associations stick out above the water.

Joseph Brodsky writes about his style models, Boris Pasternak and Osip Mandelstam: they find a detail or metaphor and start to unroll it, unfold it. Like a rose. A poem acquires centrifugal force. It accelerates itself. Like a whirlpool, as I imagine it – water streaming through a funnel; the Titanic crashes against the iceberg and is sucked into the water. All the Russian writers I mention here are tragic martyrs of the Soviet regime, a whirlpool of history.

In 1927 a group of leftist St Petersburg writers started the ‘Association for Real Art’- OBERIU. The association existed only for 3-4 years. One of the members later collected the archives of his repressed friends. The aim of the group was to ‘broaden the meaning of thing, action, word’. Alexander Vvedensky does it by ‘tearing the act in parts’ – what seems absurd doesn’t, in fact, lose it’s creative logic. The reader should be more curious, not so lazy, according to OBERIU Manifesto. The ‘fantasmagoria’ of Konstantin Vaginov appears as if seen through a mist of vibrations. But through the mist one can feel the closeness, the warmth of the object. Daniil Charms concentrates his attention on the clash between things and their inner relations.
In short, life is alogical. In the depth of chaos and absurdity one might be able to discover a flash of true meaning.
In another essay about Vvedensky I read that one should move through his poems as if in the dark – from one sparkle of understanding to the next. The poet measures the intervals between the ‘clearings’ with great precision – slightly bigger and we are lost, a bit smaller and the path is too straight. As we reach the end of the poem we cannot trace back the covered route of associations. Our wish to find meaning activates the imagination. The active reader reaches for the stock of his memory.
We are back at Bergson’s funnel, shaped like a triangular clearing between the trees.

Try to see all that Russian namedropping as ink spots – a Rorschach test.

KG 2012

KG 2012

Written for the artist book of Ans Verdijk.
August 2012
Pskov

Feb 042013
 
KG 2007 c-print

KG 2007 c-print

The essay is about practical ‘problems’ of photography, like monocular perspective, the body of the viewer, and depiction of time and memory; and also about the time duration theory of Henry Bergson, the creative use of passivity, angst and boredom, and the construction of family mythology.

essay.pdf

Ksenia Galiaeva, 2011

KG 2010 c-print

KG 2010 c-print